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Overview of water well drilling rig

water drilling machine

Overview of water well drilling rig

water well drilling rig

In the 2nd century BC, China had the original percussion drilling rig that used manpower and used bamboo bow elastic force to make the cone drill bit impact the ground. Later, it was used in rural China for a long time.

It was not until the 1950s that wire rope percussion drilling rigs were introduced from abroad.

In the early 1960s, simple water well drilling rigs such as large and small pot cones and punch-grab cones were developed.

Around 1966, the positive circulation rotary table drilling rig was developed, and the reverse circulation rotary table drilling rig and compound drilling rig were successfully developed around 1974.

In the late 1970s, the DTH vibration rotary drilling rig was created. European and American countries mainly used wire rope percussion drilling rigs in the 19th century.

In the 1860s, France first used rotary drilling rigs, which were later introduced to the United States and developed rapidly. In the 1950s, the development of reverse-circulation rotary drilling rigs began.

Later, rotary drilling rigs using compressed air instead of mud as the well washing medium appeared. In the 1970s, hydraulic power head rotary drilling rigs were developed.


Classification of water well drilling rigs

Generally divided into three categories: rotary drilling rigs, impact drilling rigs, and compound drilling rigs.

  • Rotary drilling rig

Relying on the rotary motion of the drilling tool to break the rock layer to form a whole. There are mainly large and small pot cone drills, forward and reverse circulation rotary table drills, hydraulic power head drills, and down-the-hole vibration rotary drills.

A simple rotary drilling rig has only a drilling device, while a well-structured rotary drilling rig consists of a drilling device and a circulating well washing device.

The drilling tools of the rotary table water well drilling rig include drill pipes and drill bits. The nominal diameters of commonly used drill rods are 60, 73, 89, and 114 mm. Drill bits are divided into two categories: drill bits for full drilling and drill bits for ring drilling.

  • Impact drill

Relying on the vertical reciprocating movement of the drilling tool, the drill bit hits the bottom of the well to break the rock formation. Its structure is simple, but there is no circulating well washing system, cuttings removal, and drilling rig cannot be carried out at the same time, so the work efficiency is low.

The drilling depth is generally within 250 meters, and some can reach 500-600 meters. The main types are as follows.

A simple percussion drill that uses the weight of the drill to hit the formation. The lower end of the drill tool has several sharp-angled gripping flaps that can be opened and closed. When the drill tool moves downward under its own weight, the gripping flaps are opened. The tip of each gripping flap cuts into the rock formation on a circle with a diameter of about 1 meter.

  • Compound drilling rig

There are two types: One type is to add an impact mechanism on the basis of a rotary drilling rig, mainly for rotary drilling.

When encountering a pebble layer, the two-water well drilling rig uses impact drilling, which is adaptable to various formations. Stronger; the other type is water well drilling rigs that combine impact and rotation, such as pneumatic down-the-hole hammer drilling rigs.

The down-the-hole hammer drill it uses consists of a cylinder liner and a piston that moves up and down in the cylinder liner. The lower end of the cylinder liner is connected with the drill bit, and the upper end is connected with the drill rod through a threaded joint.


Institutional composition

1.Hydraulic oil pump: It is a dual-type, a large displacement pump provides power for the powerhead, and a small displacement pump provides power for the four outrigger cylinders, the lifting mast cylinder, and the afterburner/lifting tackle cylinder.

2. Four outriggers: small drilling equipment consists of hydraulic cylinders and fixed frames. The level of the body can be adjusted at the worksite to support and stabilize the body.

3. Mast: It is a frame structure composed of huge steel pipes, channel steels, and angle steels.

The inner grooves of channel steels on both sides are used as the track for the powerhead to move up and down to ensure the verticality of the drilling. The raising and lowering of the drilling mast are completed by hydraulic cylinders.

4.Power head: a mechanism with a gear reduction box. There is a mandrel with a large hole in the middle of the low-speed shaft.

The upper part of the mandrel can be connected with the hose interface of the concrete pouring equipment for concrete pouring; the lower port of the mandrel passes through The blue plate connects the drill pipe and the drill bit.

The high-speed shaft is driven by a large torque hydraulic motor

System Components


1. Power system, equipment that provides energy for the whole set of drilling rigs;

2. Working system, equipment to work according to the requirements of the process;

3. Transmission system, equipment for transmitting, conveying, and distributing energy for the working unit;

4. Control system, control all systems and equipment, coordinate and work accurately according to the requirements of the process;

5.Auxiliary system, equipment to assist the main system.

Sealing and lubrication of flat valve of water well drilling rig accessories

The thrust bearing of the plate valve of the manual water well drilling rig parts adopts lithium-based grease. The consumption of the grease should be checked after each maintenance.

If deterioration, contamination, or lack is found, it should be replaced or supplemented immediately. The valve cavity should be times during each maintenance. Flush and refill the sealing grease to lubricate the valve plate and valve seat.

During the maintenance process, if there is a slight leakage at the valve stem packing seal, the sealing grease can be injected through the sealing grease injection valve on the valve cover to prevent leakage, but the seal should be replaced in time after the construction is completed.

Before refilling the valve with sealing grease, you must first consider the internal pressure of the valve body. The pressure of the high-pressure injection gun used must be greater than the internal pressure of the valve to successfully inject the sealing grease.

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